The use of stem cells in type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder in which immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells (β-cells) of the pancreas. Few patients have been rendered insulin-independent with actual therapies. In this review, we will discuss about the role of stem cells for the cure of T1D. An ideal treatment for T1D should preserve the remaining β-cells from an immuno-mediated destruction, restore their functionality and protect the newly generated insulin-producing cells from autoimmune response. Stem cells have immunological and regenerative properties that can either restore peripheral tolerance towards β-cells or generate new insulin producing cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, characterized by having an hypo-immunogenic phenotype and a wide range of immunomodulatory capabilities, have shown the ability to cure new onset diabetes in NOD mice. Cord blood stem cells can give rise to islet-like clusters cells and can also facilitate the gene ration of regulatory T-cells reverting hyperglycemia in NOD mice. T1D patients, treated with cord blood stem cells, have shown a stabilization of insulin requirement and an improvement of glycometabolic control. Although hematopoietic stem cells have been used without success in mouse models, they exhibited profound immunomodulatory capacities in humans. Finally, embryonic stem cells show exciting therapeutic perspectives, thanks to their plasticity. We will review the field and curb easy enthusiasm by highlighting the problems of the field.
|Translated title of the contribution||The use of stem cells in type 1 diabetes|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Giornale Italiano di Diabetologia e Metabolismo|
|Publication status||Published - Sep 2011|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism