The Verbal Judgement Task: Normative data of verbal abstract reasoning in a sample of 18- to 40-years old

Massimiliano Palmiero, Antonella Di Vita, Alice Teghil, Laura Piccardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, normative data for the age-range 18–40 years have been provided for the Verbal Judgment Test (VJT), which underpins abstract reasoning on the basis of four subtests: “Differences”, “Proverbs”, “Absurdities” and “Classifications”. 554 participants (280 males and 274 females) were recruited and the following data were provided: means and standard deviations divided by gender, educational level (8, 13 and 18 years) and age group (18–20 years, 21–25 years, 26–30 years, 31–35 years and 36–40 years) for each subtest and the total score; percentiles for each subtest, divided by age group, and, when appropriate, educational level and/or gender; Rho correlations between age group, gender, educational level, intelligence and VJT scores. Age-, education- and gender differences were also assessed carrying out non parametric tests. Results showed that age and education positively affected performance in the subtests of Differences, Proverbs and Classifications, which are mostly based on previous knowledge, experience, and crystallized intelligence, but did not affect performance in the Absurdities subtest, which encompasses to some extent fluid intelligence. In addition, males showed higher scores than females in the subtests of Differences and Proverbs and in the total VJT, probably reflecting higher knowledge acquisition. Implications for future research are briefly discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Neuropsychology:Adult
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Abstract reasoning
  • age
  • crystallized intelligence
  • education
  • fluid intelligence
  • gender differences
  • verbal ability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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