The walking corsi test (WalCT): A normative study of topographical working memory in a sample of 4-to 11-Year-Olds

L. Piccardi, L. Palermo, M. Leonzi, M. Risetti, L. Zompanti, S. Damico, C. Guariglia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We report normative data on topographical working memory collected through the Walking Corsi Test (WalCT; Piccardi et al., 2008) for developing a standard administration procedure to be used in clinical and educational practice. A total of 268 typically developing Italian children aged 4-11 years performed both WalCT and Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CBT; Corsi, 1972) a well-known visuo-spatial memory test. WalCT has already been validated in adults, demonstrating sensitivity in detecting topographical memory deficits even in individuals who have no other memory impairments. Our results showed that age, but not sex, affected performances. Both girls and boys had a larger span on the CBT than the WalCT. The youngest group did not differ in performing WalCT and CBT, but from 5.6 years of age children performed better on CBT than WalCT, suggesting that memory in reaching space develops before topographical memory. Only after 5 years of age do children learn to process specifically topographical stimuli, suggesting that this happens when their environmental knowledge becomes operational and they increase environmental independence. We also discuss the importance to introduce WalCT in the clinical assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-96
Number of pages13
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2 2014


  • Corsi Block-Tapping Test
  • Human navigation
  • Pathway memory
  • Topographical orientation
  • Visuo-spatial memory
  • Working memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Medicine(all)


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