Smoldering, nonresolving inflammation is part of the tumor microenvironment (Balkwill and Mantovani 2001; Coussens and Werb 2002; Mantovani et al. 2008a). Inflammatory cells and mediators are present in the microenvironment of cancers epidemiologically related or unrelated to inflammatory or infectious conditions. Leukocyte infiltration and the presence of soluble mediators such as cytokines, and chemokines are key characteristics of CRI. Conditions predisposing to cancer (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, IBD) or genetic events that cause neoplastic transformation orchestrate the construction of an inflammatory microenvironment. Indeed, alterations of oncogenes drive the production of inflammatory mediators. Thus, an intrinsic pathway of inflammation (driven in tumor cells), as well as an extrinsic pathway driven by chronic inflammatory conditions have been identified, both of which contribute to tumor progression (Mantovani et al.
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