Therapeutic interventions for Pisa syndrome in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. A Scoping Systematic Review

Mohammad Etoom, Mohammad Alwardat, Ala' S Aburub, Francesco Lena, Roberto Fabbrizo, Nicola Modugno, Diego Centonze

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Pisa syndrome (PS) is a postural deformity characterized by marked and reversible lateral trunk flexion. PS can be seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) and several neurodegenerative diseases. A scoping systematic review was conducted to view the therapeutic interventions for PS in PD, their effectiveness, outcome measurements, and related cofactors. Databases and manual searches were performed. Studies that evaluate the effect of interventions on PS were included. Data were extracted and categorized by the main applied therapeutic intervention. A total of 19 published and 2 unpublished studies met the inclusion criteria. Wall and traditional goniometer, kinematic analysis, and clinical observations were used to detect PS. The included studies applied the following therapeutic protocols: Deep brain stimulation (DBS), Botulinum toxin injection, posture exercises, lidocaine injection, oculomotor correction, and spinal cord stimulation. The outcomes measurements of the included studies were linked to International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model. The therapeutic interventions variously improve PS outcomes at short and long-term follow-up. The interventions did not report side effects or adverse events except DBS. PS severity was related to the DBS voltage amount in one study, and one participant in another study relapsed due to DBS. There are missing reported data in terms of participants' characteristics, medication status, and side effects. The current evidence shows the available interventions for PS, outcomes measurements, and related cofactors. The interventions may be safe and beneficial for PS. Further powerful studies are required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106242
JournalClin. Neurol. Neurosurg.
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020

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