Therapeutic options for postmenopausal female sexual dysfunction

F. Al-Azzawi, J. Bitzer, U. Brandenburg, C. Castelo-Branco, A. Graziottin, P. Kenemans, M. Lachowsky, S. Mimoun, R. E. Nappi, S. Palacios, A. Schwenkhagen, J. Studd, K. Wylie, H. P. Zahradnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BackgroundFemale sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a multidimensional problem combining biological, psychological and interpersonal elements of multiple etiologies. Menopause-related sexual dysfunction may not be reversible without therapy. Hormonal deficiency does not usually decrease in severity over time. Many options are available for the successful treatment of postmenopausal FSD. ObjectiveTo review the pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies available for postmenopausal FSD, focusing on practical recommendations for managing postmenopausal women with sexual complaints, through a literature review of the most relevant publications in this field. Psychosocial therapyThis type of therapy (basic counselling, physiotherapy and psychosexual intervention) is considered an adaptable step-by-step approach for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, normally combined with biomedical interventions to provide optimal outcomes. Pharmacological therapyFor postmenopausal FSD, many interventional options are now available, including hormonal therapies such as estrogens, testosterone, combined estrogen/testosterone, tibolone and dehydroepiandrosterone. Conclusion sMenopause and its transition represent significant risk factors for the development of sexual dysfunction. FSD impacts greatly on a patient's quality of life. Consequently, it is receiving more attention thanks to the development of effective treatments. Non-pharmacological approaches should be used first, focusing on lifestyle and psychosexual therapy. If required, proven effective hormonal and non-hormonal therapeutic options are available.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-120
Number of pages18
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2010


  • Deficiency
  • Estrogen
  • Female sexual dysfunction
  • Menopause
  • Psychosocial
  • Testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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