Experimental and clinical findings have shown in the past decade that specific proinflammatory mediators and their cognate receptors are upregulated in epileptic brain tissue. In particular, the IL-1 receptor (R)/Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways are activated in experimental models of seizures and in human epileptic tissue from drug-resistant patients. Pharmacological targeting of these proinflammatory pathways using selective receptor antagonists, or the use of transgenic mice with perturbed cell signaling, demostrated that the activation of IL-1R type 1 and TLR4 by their respective endogenous ligands, i.e., interleukin (IL)-1b and High Mobility Group Box 1, is implicated in the precipitation and recurrence of experimentally induced seizures in rodents. This evidence highlights a new target system for pharmacological intervention to inhibit seizures by interfering with mechanisms involved in their genesis and recurrence.
- Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology