Purpose: Many different treatments are suggested by guidelines to treat grade 1−2 (G1−G2) neuroendocrine tumors (NET). However, a precise therapeutic algorithm has not yet been established. This study aims at identifying and comparing the main therapeutic sequences in G1−G2 NET. Methods: A retrospective observational Italian multicenter study was designed to collect data on therapeutic sequences in NET. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was compared between therapeutic sequences, as well as the number and grade of side effects and the rate of dose reduction/treatment discontinuation. Results: Among 1182 patients with neuroendocrine neoplasia included in the ELIOS database, 131 G1–G2 gastroenteropancreatic, lung and unknown primary NET, unresectable or persistent/relapsing after surgery, treated with ≥2 systemic treatments, were included. Four main therapeutic sequences were identified in 99 patients: (A) somatostatin analogs (SSA) standard dose to SSA high dose (n = 36), (B) SSA to everolimus (n = 31), (C) SSA to chemotherapy (n = 17), (D) SSA to peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) (n = 15). Median PFS of the second-line treatment was not reached in sequence A, 33 months in sequence B, 20 months in sequence C, 30 months in sequence D (p = 0.16). Both total number and severity of side effects were significantly higher in sequences B and C than A and D (p = 0.04), as well as the rate of dose reduction/discontinuation (p = 0.03). Conclusions: SSA followed by SSA high dose, everolimus, chemotherapy or PRRT represent the main therapeutic sequences in G1−G2 NET. Median PFS was not significantly different between sequences. However, the sequences with SSA high dose or PRRT seem to be better tolerated than sequences with everolimus or chemotherapy.
- High-dose somatostatin analogs
- Neuroendocrine tumors
- Sequence of treatments
- Somatostatin analogues
- Targeted therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism