The effect of hyperthermia and lonidamine, alone and in combination, on the clonogenic activity of a human glioma cell line was investigated. The time-temperature relationship of asynchronous, exponentially growing cells was defined in the range of 40-45 °C. All survival curves were exponential and an Arrhenius plot for heat killing was linear over the temperature range tested, with an activation energy of 192 Kcal/mol. The survival curve of lonidamine-treated cells was also exponential after an initial shoulder. The analysis of the interaction between lonidamine and hyperthermia, performed by the isobolar method, demonstrated an additivity of response so that the effectiveness of the combined treatment was the result of two independent effects. Lonidamine inhibits the neoplastic growth mainly through an ATP depletion, but the thermal killing was not mediated by the drug-induced changes in the energy status of the cell. The effectiveness of the combined treatment was strongly influenced by the schedule of administration. In fact, the sequence lonidamine->hyperthermia made the cells less sensitive to heat so that the pre-established end-point, i.e. 30% survival, was never achieved whichever combination was used. This "drug-induced heat resistance" was not associated with the induction of heat shock proteins, but rather with modification of cell cycle. On the contrary, showing a purely additive effect, the sequence hyperthermia->lonidamine allowed achievement of the pre-established cell killing (70%), with exposure times (1-2 hr) and with a temperature (42 °C) generally accepted as clinically achievable. Therefore, also considering its low systemic toxicity, lonidamine may be useful in reducing the side effects of hyperthermia.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 1993|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research