Thiopurine metabolites variations during co-treatment with aminosalicylates for inflammatory bowel disease: Effect of N-acetyl transferase polymorphisms

Gabriele Stocco, Eva Cuzzoni, Sara De Iudicibus, Diego Favretto, Noelia Malusà, Stefano Martelossi, Elena Pozzi, Paolo Lionetti, Alessandro Ventura, Giuliana Decorti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

AIM: to evaluate variation of the concentration of thiopurine metabolites after 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) interruption and the role of genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyl transferase (NAT) 1 and 2. METHODS: concentrations of thioguanine nucleotides (TGN) and methymercaptopurine nucleotides (MMPN), metabolites of thiopurines, were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 12 young patients (3 females and 9 males, median age 16 years) with inflammatory bowel disease (6 Crohn's disease and 6 ulcerative colitis) treated with thiopurines (7 mercaptopurine and 5 azathioprine) and 5-ASA. Blood samples were collected one month before and one month after the interruption of 5-ASA. DNA was extracted and genotyping of NAT1, NAT2, inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) and thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) genes was performed using PCR assays. RESULTS: median TGN concentration before 5-ASA interruption was 270 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes (range: 145-750); after the interruption of the aminosalicylate, a 35% reduction in TGN mean concentrations (absolute mean reduction 109 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes) was observed (median 221 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes, range: 96-427, P value linear mixed effects model 0.0011). Demographic and clinical covariates were not related to thiopurine metabolites concentrations. All patients were wild-type for the most relevant ITPA and TPMT variants. For NAT1 genotyping, 7 subjects presented an allele combination corresponding to fast enzymatic activity and 5 to slow activity. NAT1 genotypes corresponding to fast enzymatic activity were associated with reduced TGN concentration (p value linear mixed effects model 0.033), putatively because of increased 5-ASA inactivation and consequent reduced inhibition of thiopurine metabolism. The effect of NAT1 status on TGN seems to be persistent even after one month since the interruption of the aminosalicylate. No effect of NAT1 genotypes was shown on MMPN concentrations. NAT2 genotyping revealed that 6 patients presented a genotype corresponding to fast enzymatic activity and 6 to slow activity; NAT2 genotypes were not related to thiopurine metabolites concentration in this study. CONCLUSION: NAT1 genotype affects TGN levels in patients treated with thiopurines and aminosalicylates and could therefore influence the toxicity and efficacy of these drugs; however the number of patients evaluated is limited and this has to be considered a pilot study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3571-3578
Number of pages8
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume21
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 28 2015

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Transferases
Thioguanine
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Mesalamine
Nucleotides
Genotype
Pyrophosphatases
Inosine Triphosphate
Erythrocytes
Therapeutics
6-Mercaptopurine
Azathioprine
Genetic Polymorphisms
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Ulcerative Colitis
Crohn Disease
Alleles
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Demography
Polymerase Chain Reaction

Keywords

  • Aminosalicylates
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • N-acetyl transferase
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • Thiopurines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Thiopurine metabolites variations during co-treatment with aminosalicylates for inflammatory bowel disease : Effect of N-acetyl transferase polymorphisms. / Stocco, Gabriele; Cuzzoni, Eva; De Iudicibus, Sara; Favretto, Diego; Malusà, Noelia; Martelossi, Stefano; Pozzi, Elena; Lionetti, Paolo; Ventura, Alessandro; Decorti, Giuliana.

In: World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 21, No. 12, 28.03.2015, p. 3571-3578.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stocco, Gabriele ; Cuzzoni, Eva ; De Iudicibus, Sara ; Favretto, Diego ; Malusà, Noelia ; Martelossi, Stefano ; Pozzi, Elena ; Lionetti, Paolo ; Ventura, Alessandro ; Decorti, Giuliana. / Thiopurine metabolites variations during co-treatment with aminosalicylates for inflammatory bowel disease : Effect of N-acetyl transferase polymorphisms. In: World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2015 ; Vol. 21, No. 12. pp. 3571-3578.
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abstract = "AIM: to evaluate variation of the concentration of thiopurine metabolites after 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) interruption and the role of genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyl transferase (NAT) 1 and 2. METHODS: concentrations of thioguanine nucleotides (TGN) and methymercaptopurine nucleotides (MMPN), metabolites of thiopurines, were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 12 young patients (3 females and 9 males, median age 16 years) with inflammatory bowel disease (6 Crohn's disease and 6 ulcerative colitis) treated with thiopurines (7 mercaptopurine and 5 azathioprine) and 5-ASA. Blood samples were collected one month before and one month after the interruption of 5-ASA. DNA was extracted and genotyping of NAT1, NAT2, inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) and thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) genes was performed using PCR assays. RESULTS: median TGN concentration before 5-ASA interruption was 270 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes (range: 145-750); after the interruption of the aminosalicylate, a 35{\%} reduction in TGN mean concentrations (absolute mean reduction 109 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes) was observed (median 221 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes, range: 96-427, P value linear mixed effects model 0.0011). Demographic and clinical covariates were not related to thiopurine metabolites concentrations. All patients were wild-type for the most relevant ITPA and TPMT variants. For NAT1 genotyping, 7 subjects presented an allele combination corresponding to fast enzymatic activity and 5 to slow activity. NAT1 genotypes corresponding to fast enzymatic activity were associated with reduced TGN concentration (p value linear mixed effects model 0.033), putatively because of increased 5-ASA inactivation and consequent reduced inhibition of thiopurine metabolism. The effect of NAT1 status on TGN seems to be persistent even after one month since the interruption of the aminosalicylate. No effect of NAT1 genotypes was shown on MMPN concentrations. NAT2 genotyping revealed that 6 patients presented a genotype corresponding to fast enzymatic activity and 6 to slow activity; NAT2 genotypes were not related to thiopurine metabolites concentration in this study. CONCLUSION: NAT1 genotype affects TGN levels in patients treated with thiopurines and aminosalicylates and could therefore influence the toxicity and efficacy of these drugs; however the number of patients evaluated is limited and this has to be considered a pilot study.",
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T2 - Effect of N-acetyl transferase polymorphisms

AU - Stocco, Gabriele

AU - Cuzzoni, Eva

AU - De Iudicibus, Sara

AU - Favretto, Diego

AU - Malusà, Noelia

AU - Martelossi, Stefano

AU - Pozzi, Elena

AU - Lionetti, Paolo

AU - Ventura, Alessandro

AU - Decorti, Giuliana

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N2 - AIM: to evaluate variation of the concentration of thiopurine metabolites after 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) interruption and the role of genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyl transferase (NAT) 1 and 2. METHODS: concentrations of thioguanine nucleotides (TGN) and methymercaptopurine nucleotides (MMPN), metabolites of thiopurines, were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 12 young patients (3 females and 9 males, median age 16 years) with inflammatory bowel disease (6 Crohn's disease and 6 ulcerative colitis) treated with thiopurines (7 mercaptopurine and 5 azathioprine) and 5-ASA. Blood samples were collected one month before and one month after the interruption of 5-ASA. DNA was extracted and genotyping of NAT1, NAT2, inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) and thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) genes was performed using PCR assays. RESULTS: median TGN concentration before 5-ASA interruption was 270 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes (range: 145-750); after the interruption of the aminosalicylate, a 35% reduction in TGN mean concentrations (absolute mean reduction 109 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes) was observed (median 221 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes, range: 96-427, P value linear mixed effects model 0.0011). Demographic and clinical covariates were not related to thiopurine metabolites concentrations. All patients were wild-type for the most relevant ITPA and TPMT variants. For NAT1 genotyping, 7 subjects presented an allele combination corresponding to fast enzymatic activity and 5 to slow activity. NAT1 genotypes corresponding to fast enzymatic activity were associated with reduced TGN concentration (p value linear mixed effects model 0.033), putatively because of increased 5-ASA inactivation and consequent reduced inhibition of thiopurine metabolism. The effect of NAT1 status on TGN seems to be persistent even after one month since the interruption of the aminosalicylate. No effect of NAT1 genotypes was shown on MMPN concentrations. NAT2 genotyping revealed that 6 patients presented a genotype corresponding to fast enzymatic activity and 6 to slow activity; NAT2 genotypes were not related to thiopurine metabolites concentration in this study. CONCLUSION: NAT1 genotype affects TGN levels in patients treated with thiopurines and aminosalicylates and could therefore influence the toxicity and efficacy of these drugs; however the number of patients evaluated is limited and this has to be considered a pilot study.

AB - AIM: to evaluate variation of the concentration of thiopurine metabolites after 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) interruption and the role of genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyl transferase (NAT) 1 and 2. METHODS: concentrations of thioguanine nucleotides (TGN) and methymercaptopurine nucleotides (MMPN), metabolites of thiopurines, were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 12 young patients (3 females and 9 males, median age 16 years) with inflammatory bowel disease (6 Crohn's disease and 6 ulcerative colitis) treated with thiopurines (7 mercaptopurine and 5 azathioprine) and 5-ASA. Blood samples were collected one month before and one month after the interruption of 5-ASA. DNA was extracted and genotyping of NAT1, NAT2, inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) and thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) genes was performed using PCR assays. RESULTS: median TGN concentration before 5-ASA interruption was 270 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes (range: 145-750); after the interruption of the aminosalicylate, a 35% reduction in TGN mean concentrations (absolute mean reduction 109 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes) was observed (median 221 pmol/8 × 108 erythrocytes, range: 96-427, P value linear mixed effects model 0.0011). Demographic and clinical covariates were not related to thiopurine metabolites concentrations. All patients were wild-type for the most relevant ITPA and TPMT variants. For NAT1 genotyping, 7 subjects presented an allele combination corresponding to fast enzymatic activity and 5 to slow activity. NAT1 genotypes corresponding to fast enzymatic activity were associated with reduced TGN concentration (p value linear mixed effects model 0.033), putatively because of increased 5-ASA inactivation and consequent reduced inhibition of thiopurine metabolism. The effect of NAT1 status on TGN seems to be persistent even after one month since the interruption of the aminosalicylate. No effect of NAT1 genotypes was shown on MMPN concentrations. NAT2 genotyping revealed that 6 patients presented a genotype corresponding to fast enzymatic activity and 6 to slow activity; NAT2 genotypes were not related to thiopurine metabolites concentration in this study. CONCLUSION: NAT1 genotype affects TGN levels in patients treated with thiopurines and aminosalicylates and could therefore influence the toxicity and efficacy of these drugs; however the number of patients evaluated is limited and this has to be considered a pilot study.

KW - Aminosalicylates

KW - Inflammatory bowel diseases

KW - N-acetyl transferase

KW - Pharmacogenomics

KW - Thiopurines

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