Three-dimensional assessment of nose and lip morphology in North Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome

Chiarella Sforza, Fadil Elamin, Riccardo Rosati, Alberto Lucchini Marco, Davide G. Tommasi, Virgilio F. Ferrario

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To detail the nasolabial morphologic characteristics of North Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome (DS). Materials and Methods: Nasolabial morphology was assessed three-dimensionally in 64 North Sudanese subjects with DS aged 4 to 34 years and in 682 sex- and age-matched controls. Threedimensional facial coordinates were collected using a laser scan, and selected distances, angles, areas, and volumes were computed. Subject and reference data were compared by computing zscores and Student's t-tests. Results: The nose was significantly smaller (area) in subjects with DS than in reference subjects, and it had a different shape (more flat angle of alar slope, more acute nasal tip angle). The vertical (nasal bridge length, nose height) and anteroposterior (nasal tip protrusion) dimensions were reduced, while the horizontal dimensions (alar base width, inferior widths of the nostrils) were increased. The nasolabial angle was increased. The cutaneous lip volume was significantly smaller, while the vermilion lip area was larger in the subjects with DS. The mouth and philtrum widths were significantly reduced, while the vermilion height was significantly increased. Conclusion: Analyzed subjects with DS had a hypoplastic nose and different upper and lower lips than did reference, normal subjects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-116
Number of pages8
JournalAngle Orthodontist
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011


  • Anthropometry
  • Face
  • Syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics


Dive into the research topics of 'Three-dimensional assessment of nose and lip morphology in North Sudanese subjects with Down syndrome'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this