Three-dimensional echocardiography to assess left ventricular geometry and function

Andrada C. Guta, Luigi P. Badano, Roberto C. Ochoa-Jimenez, Davide Genovese, Marco Previtero, Stefania Civera, Alessandro Ruocco, Natascia Bettella, Gianfranco Parati, Denisa Muraru

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Quantification of left ventricular (LV) size and function represents the most frequent indication for an echocardiographic study. New echocardiographic techniques have been developed over the last decades in an attempt to provide a more comprehensive, accurate, and reproducible assessment of LV function. Areas covered: Although two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) is the recommended imaging modality to evaluate the LV, three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has proven to be more accurate, by avoiding geometric assumptions about LV geometry, and to have incremental value for outcome prediction in comparison to conventional 2DE. LV shape (sphericity) and mass are actually measured with 3DE. Myocardial deformation analysis using 3DE can early detect subclinical LV dysfunction, before any detectable change in LV ejection fraction. Expert opinion: 3DE eliminates the errors associated with foreshortening and geometric assumptions inherent to 2DE and 3DE measurements approach very closely those obtained by CMR (the current reference modality), while maintaining the unique clinical advantage of a safe, highly cost/effective, portable imaging technique, available to the cardiologist at bedside to translate immediately the echocardiography findings into the clinical decision-making process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)801-815
Number of pages15
JournalExpert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2 2019


  • diastolic function
  • dyssynchrony
  • ejection fraction
  • Left ventricle
  • mass
  • myocardial deformation
  • shape
  • speckle-tracking echocardiography
  • systolic function
  • three-dimensional echocardiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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