Thrombosis and Anti-phospholipid Syndrome: a 5-Year Update on Treatment

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Purpose of Review: The aim of this review is to provide an update of the therapeutic tools for thrombotic anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), focusing on the last 5 years. Recent Findings: Early studies appointed anticoagulation at moderate intensity as the mainstay of treatment of thrombotic APS; in the last 5 years, the strategy has not much mutated. Some uncertainties regarding the role of direct oral anticoagulants and the optimal regimen for arterial thrombotic APS still persist: high-intensity anticoagulation, anticoagulation plus anti-platelet agent, and double anti-platelet agents being the possible alternatives. Several drugs have been proposed as effective additional tools for the management of thrombotic APS: hydroxychloroquine, statins, vitamin D, and sirolimus might be beneficial when added on the top of anticoagulation. Pregnant women with thrombotic APS should be switched to low-dose aspirin plus low molecular weight heparin at therapeutic dose. Despite adequate treatment, APS patients display a significant rate of recurrences; rituximab, eculizumab, and intravenous immunoglobulins are among the options to be considered for these patients. Summary: From 2013 to date, the kaleidoscope of therapeutic options in thrombotic APS has been enriched, but tangible improvements in the management of patients are still awaited.

Original languageEnglish
Article number44
JournalCurrent Rheumatology Reports
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2018


  • Anti-phospholipid antibodies
  • Anti-phospholipid syndrome
  • Thrombosis
  • Treatment
  • Update

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology


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