Thymomodulin increases release of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and of tumour necrosis factor in vitro

B. Balbi, M. T. Valle, S. Oddera, E. Balleari, F. Manca, G. A. Rossi, L. Allegra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


To evaluate the effects of thymomodulin (TMD), a thymic biological response modifier derived from calf thymus, on the release of various cytokines involved in the lung immune reactions, human alveolar macrophages (AM) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were cultured either alone or in co-cultures. In co-cultures of AM with PBL, TMD did not induce any change in γ-interferon (γ-IFN) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion, while it was able to increase the level, of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)(TMD 100 μg·m-1, p-1 p-1 increased the amounts of GM-CSF (p

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1097-1103
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Respiratory Journal
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1992



  • alveolar macrophages
  • granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
  • T-lymphocytes
  • thymomodulin
  • tumour necrosis factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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