Thyroid dysfunction, however mild, can significantly affect the cardiovascular (CV) system. The effects of thyroid hormones may be viewed as genomic and non-genomic, with the former occurring over a longer time scale and both affecting structural and functional proteins in CV tissue. As the interplay between thyroid function and the CV system becomes elucidated, particularly in the context of a system biology approach, the heart failure phenotype is better understood. Symptomatology is related to disturbance in inotropic and chronotropic function. Moreover, biochemical changes reflected by thyroid function testing with the non-thyroidal illness syndrome can prognosticate and guide therapy in heart failure. In addition, empiric treatment with thyroid hormone analogues or T3 represent emergent and highly controversial interventions.
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