Thyroid hormones regulate DNA-synthesis and cell-cycle proteins by activation of PKCα and p42/44 MAPK in chick embryo hepatocytes

A. Alisi, S. Spagnuolo, S. Napoletano, A. Spaziani, Silvia Leoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The molecular mechanism by which thyroid hormones exert their effects on cell growth is still unknown. In this study, we used chick embryo hepatocytes at different stages of development as a model to investigate the effect of the two thyroid hormones, T3 and T4, and of their metabolite T2, on the control of cell proliferation. We observed that T2 provokes increase of DNA-synthesis as well as T3 and T4, independently of developmental stage. We found that this stimulatory effect on the S phase is reverted by specific inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK), Ro 31-8220 or PD 98059. Furthermore, the treatment with thyroid hormones induces the activation of PKCα and p42/44 MAPK, suggesting their role as possible downstream mediators of cell response mediated by thyroid hormones. The increase of DNA-synthesis is well correlated with the increased levels of cyclin D1 and cdk4 that control the G1 phase, and also with the activities of cell-cycle proteins involved in the G1 to S phase progression, such as cyclin E/A-cdk2 complexes. Interestingly, the activity of cyclin-cdk2 complexes is strongly repressed in the presence of PKC and p42/44 MAPK inhibitors. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the thyroid hormones could modulate different signaling pathways that are able to control cell-cycle progression, mainly during G1/S transition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259-265
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cellular Physiology
Volume201
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Physiology

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