The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a pituitary glycoprotein hormone that controls the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. TSH secretion is primarily regulated by the negative feedback mechanism of circulating thyroid hormones and by the stimulatory activity of a hypothalamic factor, the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Recent advances consist mainly of a better understanding of the TSH receptor which is involved in the pathogenesis of the hyperthyroidism (gain of function mutations) and of some types of hypothyroidism (loss of function mutations). Progress has been made also in the techniques for TSH measurement which are today ultrasensitive due to the use of non competitive immunometric assays. However, the biological activity of circulating TSH not always correlates with its immunometric values.
- TSH receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Internal Medicine
- Nutrition and Dietetics