Time for the 70 °c water precautionary option in the home dilution of powdered infant formula

Marco Silano, Paola Paganin, Riccardo Davanzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Powdered infant formulas (PIF) are usually not sterile and may frequently be contaminated by several bacteria strains. Among them, Cronobacter species, previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii, is one of the most harmful, since it might be the causative agent of sepsis and meningitis in newborns and preterm infants during the first weeks of life. The mortality rate of these infections is up to 80 %. Therefore, some precautions are required in the home handling and dilution of PIF. Whereas there is wide consensus about the need that a PIF should be used immediately after being diluted or, if not, stored at <"5 °C", still recently the optimal temperature of the water used to dilute PIF is controversial among scientific societies and health agencies. The current knowledge is reviewed in this paper and provides sufficient evidence to cautiously advise the use of hot water at a temperature of "70 °C" in the dilution of PIF in order to prevent the Cronobacter sp. contamination and growth.

Original languageEnglish
Article number17
JournalItalian Journal of Pediatrics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 19 2016


  • Cronobacter sp. infection
  • Formula preparation
  • Home dilution
  • Infant sepsis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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