To extinguish the fire from outside the cell or to shutdown the gas valve inside? Novel trends in anti-inflammatory therapies

Annalisa Marcuzzi, Elisa Piscianz, Erica Valencic, Lorenzo Monasta, Liza Vecchi Brumatti, Alberto Tommasini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Cytokines are the most important soluble mediators of inflammation. Rare pediatric diseases provided exemplar conditions to study the anti-inflammatory efficacy of new generation therapies (biologics/biopharmaceuticals) selectively targeting single cytokines. Monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins have revolutionized anti-inflammatory therapies in the last two decades, allowing the specific targeting of single cytokines. They are very effective in extinguishing inflammation from outside the cell, even with the risk of an excessive and prolonged immunosuppression. Small molecules can enter the cell and shutdown the valve of inflammation by directly targeting signal proteins involved in cytokine release or in response to cytokines. They are orally-administrable drugs whose dosage can be easily adjusted to obtain the desired anti-inflammatory effect. This could make these drugs more suitable for a wide range of diseases as stroke, gout, or neurological impairment, where inflammatory activation plays a pivotal role as trigger. Autoinflammatory diseases, which have previously put anti-cytokine proteins in the limelight, can again provide a valuable model to measure the real potential of small inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21277-21293
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume16
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 7 2015

Keywords

  • Biologic drugs
  • Cytokines
  • Rare disease
  • Small molecules

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Computer Science Applications

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