Dendritic cells (DCs) include a heterogeneous family of professional APCs involved in initiation of immunity and in immunologic tolerance. Specifically, peripheral tolerance can be achieved and maintained by promoting regulatory T-cell (Treg) responses and/or T-cell anergy or deletion. Until recently, immature developmental stages of DC differentiation were believed to induce T-cell anergy or Treg cells, whereas DCs transformed into mature DCs by activation stimuli were thought to represent immunogenic DCs capable of inciting primary T-cell responses. This paradigm has been challenged by the demonstration of Treg-cell expansion by antigen-bearing, fully mature DCs. Similarly, semimature DCs with a distinctive interleukin 10 (IL-10) +IL-12- cytokine production profile might be endowed with tolerogenic functions, supporting the concept that DC maturation per se should no longer be considered as a distinguishing feature of immunogenic as opposed to tolerogenic DCs (TDCs). Cytokine-modulated TDCs reflect an incomplete or altered status of monocyte differentiation and promote in vitro induction of Treg cells and/or in vivo protection from autoimmune diseases. Several growth factors, including IL-10, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), modulate DC maturation and favor the differentiation of TDCs. From a therapeutic standpoint, cytokine-modulated TDCs might be beneficial for prevention and/or treatment of posttransplantation graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and autoimmunity.
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