Trans-arterial chemoembolization as a therapy for liver tumours: New clinical developments and suggestions for combination with angiogenesis inhibitors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The liver is the primary site of metastases for many malignancies. Gastrointestinal cancers are especially prone to spread to the liver and other tumours, as breast cancer and melanoma often spread to the liver. On the other hand, hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy in the world due to its common etiology from chronic liver damage caused by hepatitis or cirrhosis. Treatments of liver tumours vary according to histology and liver invasion and until now trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has represented a main approach in the therapy of liver tumours. This review takes into consideration: (i) the background to utilizing TACE in liver tumours; (ii) TACE methods and the biological rationale for utilizing chemotherapeutic agents coated to a new micro-particle such as DC-Beads and HepaSphere; (iii) clinical experiences employing TACE in different liver tumours; (iv) the pivotal role of angiogenesis and hypoxia-induced angiogenesis following TACE with special references to HCC. Finally, the rationale for the combination of TACE with angiogenesis inhibitors is also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-53
Number of pages14
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011



  • Angiogenesis
  • Angiogenesis inhibitors
  • DC-Beads
  • Doxorubicin
  • HepaSphere
  • Irinotecan
  • Liver tumours
  • Trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE)
  • VEGF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Hematology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this