Transdermal apomorphine permeation from microemulsions: A new treatment in Parkinson's disease

Lorenzo Priano, Gianni Albani, Andrea Brioschi, Sara Calderoni, Leonardo Lopiano, Mario Rizzone, Roberta Cavalli, Maria Rosa Gasco, Francesco Scaglione, Franco Fraschini, Bruno Bergamasco, Alessandro Mauro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We studied absorption, efficacy, and tolerability in Parkinson's disease (PD) of a new preparation of apomorphine included in a microemulsion and administered by transdermal route (Apo-MTD). Twenty-one PD patients were treated with levodopa plus oral dopamine-agonists (T0), with levodopa alone (T1), finally with levodopa plus Apo-MTD (T2). Apo-MTD provided therapeutic plasma levels for many hours, improved Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III scores, and reduced total duration of off periods compared to T0 and T1. We concluded that Apo-MTD is absorbed and demonstrates clinical efficacy and long action. Therefore, it seems a promising add-on treatment for uncontrolled prolonged off phases in PD patients, but chronic tolerability needs further study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)937-942
Number of pages6
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2004


  • Apomorphine
  • Dopamine agonists
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Transdermal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)


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