TG2 is a multifunctional enzyme involved in several cellular processes and has emerging as a potential regulator of gene expression. In this regard, we have recently shown that TG2 is able to activate HSF1, the master transcriptional regulator of the stress‐responsive genes; however, its effect on the overall gene expression remains unclear. To address this point, we analyzed, by RNA-seq, the effect of TG2 on the overall transcriptome as well as we characterized the TG2 interactome in the nucleus. The data obtained from these omics approaches reveal that TG2 markedly influences the overall cellular transcriptome profile and specifically the Wnt and HSF1 pathways. In particular, its ablation leads to a drastic downregulation of many key members of these pathways. Interestingly, we found that key components of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are also downregulated in cells lacking HSF1, thus confirming that TG2 regulates the HSF1 and this axis controls the Wnt signaling. Mechanistic studies revealed that TG2 can regulate the Wnt pathway by physically interacts with β-catenin and its nuclear interactome includes several proteins known to be involved in the regulation of the Wnt signaling. In order to verify whether this effect is playing a role in vivo, we ablated TG2 in Danio rerio. Our data show that the zebrafish lacking TG2 cannot complete the development and their death is associated with an evident downregulation of the Wnt pathway and a defective heat-shock response. Our findings show for the first time that TG2 is essential for the correct embryonal development of lower vertebrates, and its action is mediated by the Wnt/HSF1 axis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research