Trauma coagulopathy and its outcomes

Gabriele Savioli, Iride Francesca Ceresa, Sarah Macedonio, Sebastiano Gerosa, Mirko Belliato, Giorgio Antonio Iotti, Sabino Luzzi, Mattia Del Maestro, Gianluca Mezzini, Alice Giotta Lucifero, Elvis Lafe, Anna Simoncelli, Federica Manzoni, Lorenzo Cobianchi, Mario Mosconi, Fabrizio Cuzzocrea, Francesco Benazzo, Ricevuti Giovanni, Maria Antonietta Bressan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Trauma coagulopathy begins at the moment of trauma. This study investigated whether coagulopathy upon arrival in the emergency room (ER) is correlated with increased hemotransfusion requirement, more hemodynamic instability, more severe anatomical damage, a greater need for hospitalization, and hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU). We also analyzed whether trauma coagulopathy is correlated with unfavorable indices, such as acidemia, lactate increase, and base excess (BE) increase. Material and Methods: We conducted a prospective, monocentric, observational study of all patients (n = 503) referred to the Department of Emergency and Acceptance, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, for major trauma from 1 January 2018 to 30 January 2019. Results: Of the 503 patients, 204 had trauma coagulopathy (group 1), whereas 299 patients (group 2) did not. Group 1 had a higher hemotransfusion rate than group 2. In group 1, 15% of patients showed hemodynamic instability compared with only 8% of group 2. The shock index (SI) distribution was worse in group 1 than in group 2. Group 1 was more often hypotensive, tachycardic, and with low oxygen saturation, and had a more severe injury severity score than group 2. In addition, 47% of group 1 had three or more body districts involved compared with 23% of group 2. The hospitalization rate was higher in group 1 than in group 2 (76% vs. 58%). The length of hospitalization was >10 days for 45% of group 1 compared with 28% of group 2. The hospitalization rate in the ICU was higher in group 1 than in group 2 (22% vs. 14.8%). The average duration of ICU hospitalization was longer in group 1 than in group 2 (12.5 vs. 9.78 days). Mortality was higher in group 1 than in group 2 (3.92% vs. 0.98%). Group 1 more often had acidemia and high lactates than group 2. Group 1 also more often had BE <−6. Conclusions: Trauma coagulopathy patients, upon arrival in the ER, have greater hemotransfusion (p = 0.016) requirements and need hospitalization (p = 0.032) more frequently than patients without trauma coagulopathy. Trauma coagulopathy seems to be more present in patients with a higher injury severity score (ISS) (p = 0.000) and a greater number of anatomical districts involved (p = 0.000). Head trauma (p = 0.000) and abdominal trauma (p = 0.057) seem related to the development of trauma coagulopathy. Males seem more exposed than females in developing trauma coagulopathy (p = 0.018). Upon arrival in the ER, the presence of tachycardia or alteration of SI and its derivatives can allow early detection of patients with trauma coagulopathy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number205
JournalMedicina (Lithuania)
Volume56
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020

Keywords

  • Coagulopathy
  • Hemodynamics
  • Trauma
  • Trauma management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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