Down syndrome (DS) is often accompanied by gastrointestinal disease, occurring mainly in early infancy and frequently requiring therapy. Among motility disorders, the most frequent is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which may often be misdiagnosed because of its atypical manifestations. Early diagnosis of esophageal functional disorders is essential to prevent respiratory problems, growth retardation in children, weight loss in adults, and to establish the correct type of surgery if needed. Furthermore, the involvement of the enteric nervous system in the pathophysiology of GERD in DS is not yet completely understood but seems supported by much evidence. In fact DS is often associated with motor disorders and this evidence must be considered in the choice of therapy: in particular all options available to improve motility seem to be effective in these patients. The effectiveness of therapy is strictly related to the rate of mental impairment, so that modulating therapy is essential, especially in view of the severity of the neurological status.
- Chromosome 21
- Down syndrome
- Gastro-esophageal reflux disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas