The incidence of chronic renal and cardiovascular diseases is increasing worldwide. Since renal disease is the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, strategies able to reduce renal disease progression are expected to translate into a decreased incidence of cardiovascular events. To this purpose, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system, both by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists, represents the best available option. Several large, randomized studies have convincingly shown that these treatments are associated with a significant reduction in the risk for renal disease progression in diabetic and non diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Importantly, improvement of renal outcomes is paralleled by a reduction of the cardiovascular risk. However, a significant proportion of patients with chronic nephropathies still progresses to end-stage renal failure or dies for cardiovascular events. A more complex strategy, including strict control of BP and proteinuria, lowering of blood lipids, tight metabolic control of diabetes, and lifestyle changes may improve morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic renal disease as compared with single or dual intervention on the renin-angiotensin system. Moreover, prevention strategies are urgently needed to face the burden of chronic renal disease and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This is particularly true for developing countries, where the incidence of these chronic diseases is growing with the highest rate.
- Cardiovascular disease
- Chronic renal disease
- Reninangiotensin system inhibitors
ASJC Scopus subject areas