Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most-common valvular heart disease in the western world. From an etiologic point of view, MR can be either organic (mainly degenerative in western countries) or functional (secondary to left ventricular remodeling in the context of ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy). Degenerative and functional MR are completely different disease entities that pose specific decision-making problems and require different management. The natural history of severe degenerative MR is clearly unfavorable. However, the appropriate and timely correction of degenerative MR is associated with a life expectancy similar to that of the normal population. By contrast, the prognostic impact of the correction of functional MR is still a matter of debate. In this Review, we discuss the optimal treatment of both degenerative and functional MR, taking into account all presently available therapeutic options, including novel percutaneous methods. Since a clear understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of valvular dysfunction is important to guide the timing and choice of treatment, the role of echocardiography in the management of MR is also addressed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine