Treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in paediatric patients: A monocentric experience

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Abstract

Background Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations and accelerated atherosclerosis. The presence of double gene defects in the LDL-Receptor, either the same defect (homozygous) or two different LDL-raising mutations (compound heterozygotes) or other variants, identify the homozygous phenotype (HopFH). Apheresis is a procedure in which plasma is separated from red blood cells before the physical removal of LDL-C or the LDL-C is directly removed from whole blood. It is currently the treatment of choice for patients with HopFH whose LDL-C levels are not able to be reduced to target levels with conventional lipid-lowering drug therapy. Design The aim of this study is to report a cohort of six paediatric patients and to evaluate the long term efficacy of combined medical therapy and LDL-apheresis on LDL-C reduction. Methods We collected data from six children with confirmed diagnosis of HopFH (two females and four males; age range at diagnosis 3-8 years, mean 6 ± 1 years) from a single clinical hospital in Italy from 2007 to 2017. Results Clinical manifestations and outcomes may greatly vary in children with HopFH. Medical therapy and LDL-apheresis for the severe form should be started promptly in order to prevent cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Lipoprotein apheresis is a very important tool in managing patients with HopFH at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Based on our experience and the literature data, the method is feasible in very young children, efficient regarding biological results and cardiac events, and safe with minor side-effects and technical problems. We advise treating homozygous and compound heterozygous children as soon as possible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1098-1105
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Volume25
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018

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Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
Blood Component Removal
LDL Cholesterol
Pediatrics
Cardiovascular Diseases
Therapeutics
LDL Receptors
Heterozygote
Italy
Lipoproteins
Atherosclerosis
Erythrocytes
Phenotype
Lipids
Drug Therapy
Mutation
Genes
oxidized low density lipoprotein

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@article{43ba4d39e7f64d429d08330fc65f6572,
title = "Treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in paediatric patients: A monocentric experience",
abstract = "Background Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations and accelerated atherosclerosis. The presence of double gene defects in the LDL-Receptor, either the same defect (homozygous) or two different LDL-raising mutations (compound heterozygotes) or other variants, identify the homozygous phenotype (HopFH). Apheresis is a procedure in which plasma is separated from red blood cells before the physical removal of LDL-C or the LDL-C is directly removed from whole blood. It is currently the treatment of choice for patients with HopFH whose LDL-C levels are not able to be reduced to target levels with conventional lipid-lowering drug therapy. Design The aim of this study is to report a cohort of six paediatric patients and to evaluate the long term efficacy of combined medical therapy and LDL-apheresis on LDL-C reduction. Methods We collected data from six children with confirmed diagnosis of HopFH (two females and four males; age range at diagnosis 3-8 years, mean 6 ± 1 years) from a single clinical hospital in Italy from 2007 to 2017. Results Clinical manifestations and outcomes may greatly vary in children with HopFH. Medical therapy and LDL-apheresis for the severe form should be started promptly in order to prevent cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Lipoprotein apheresis is a very important tool in managing patients with HopFH at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Based on our experience and the literature data, the method is feasible in very young children, efficient regarding biological results and cardiac events, and safe with minor side-effects and technical problems. We advise treating homozygous and compound heterozygous children as soon as possible.",
author = "Buonuomo, {Paola S} and Marina Macchiaiolo and Giovanna Leone and Paola Valente and Gerarda Mastrogiorgio and Maria Gnazzo and Ippolita Rana and Gonfiantini, {Michaela V} and Gagliardi, {Maria G} and Francesca Romano and Andrea Bartuli",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1177/2047487318776836",
language = "English",
volume = "25",
pages = "1098--1105",
journal = "European Journal of Preventive Cardiology",
issn = "2047-4873",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Ltd",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in paediatric patients

T2 - A monocentric experience

AU - Buonuomo, Paola S

AU - Macchiaiolo, Marina

AU - Leone, Giovanna

AU - Valente, Paola

AU - Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda

AU - Gnazzo, Maria

AU - Rana, Ippolita

AU - Gonfiantini, Michaela V

AU - Gagliardi, Maria G

AU - Romano, Francesca

AU - Bartuli, Andrea

PY - 2018/7

Y1 - 2018/7

N2 - Background Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations and accelerated atherosclerosis. The presence of double gene defects in the LDL-Receptor, either the same defect (homozygous) or two different LDL-raising mutations (compound heterozygotes) or other variants, identify the homozygous phenotype (HopFH). Apheresis is a procedure in which plasma is separated from red blood cells before the physical removal of LDL-C or the LDL-C is directly removed from whole blood. It is currently the treatment of choice for patients with HopFH whose LDL-C levels are not able to be reduced to target levels with conventional lipid-lowering drug therapy. Design The aim of this study is to report a cohort of six paediatric patients and to evaluate the long term efficacy of combined medical therapy and LDL-apheresis on LDL-C reduction. Methods We collected data from six children with confirmed diagnosis of HopFH (two females and four males; age range at diagnosis 3-8 years, mean 6 ± 1 years) from a single clinical hospital in Italy from 2007 to 2017. Results Clinical manifestations and outcomes may greatly vary in children with HopFH. Medical therapy and LDL-apheresis for the severe form should be started promptly in order to prevent cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Lipoprotein apheresis is a very important tool in managing patients with HopFH at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Based on our experience and the literature data, the method is feasible in very young children, efficient regarding biological results and cardiac events, and safe with minor side-effects and technical problems. We advise treating homozygous and compound heterozygous children as soon as possible.

AB - Background Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations and accelerated atherosclerosis. The presence of double gene defects in the LDL-Receptor, either the same defect (homozygous) or two different LDL-raising mutations (compound heterozygotes) or other variants, identify the homozygous phenotype (HopFH). Apheresis is a procedure in which plasma is separated from red blood cells before the physical removal of LDL-C or the LDL-C is directly removed from whole blood. It is currently the treatment of choice for patients with HopFH whose LDL-C levels are not able to be reduced to target levels with conventional lipid-lowering drug therapy. Design The aim of this study is to report a cohort of six paediatric patients and to evaluate the long term efficacy of combined medical therapy and LDL-apheresis on LDL-C reduction. Methods We collected data from six children with confirmed diagnosis of HopFH (two females and four males; age range at diagnosis 3-8 years, mean 6 ± 1 years) from a single clinical hospital in Italy from 2007 to 2017. Results Clinical manifestations and outcomes may greatly vary in children with HopFH. Medical therapy and LDL-apheresis for the severe form should be started promptly in order to prevent cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Lipoprotein apheresis is a very important tool in managing patients with HopFH at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Based on our experience and the literature data, the method is feasible in very young children, efficient regarding biological results and cardiac events, and safe with minor side-effects and technical problems. We advise treating homozygous and compound heterozygous children as soon as possible.

U2 - 10.1177/2047487318776836

DO - 10.1177/2047487318776836

M3 - Article

C2 - 29785886

VL - 25

SP - 1098

EP - 1105

JO - European Journal of Preventive Cardiology

JF - European Journal of Preventive Cardiology

SN - 2047-4873

IS - 10

ER -