Background Information on malignant pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs) is mostly from retrospective studies in highly selected patients. The aim of this prospective, multicentre study was to assess treatment and outcomes of malignant pNENs in clinical practice. Patients and methods Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed, histologically-proven pNENs were included and followed-up for 2 years. Tumours were defined as malignant when nodal or distant metastases were present or invasion of extrapancreatic structures/organs was evident. Results A total of 140 patients with malignant pNENs were included. Ninety-eight patients (70.0%) underwent a surgical resection (76 radical and 22 palliative). Other non-surgical treatments were used in 101 patients (72.1%): somatostatin analogues (n = 63), chemotherapy (n = 30), ablative treatments (n = 15) and peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (n = 14). No relationship was observed between the 2010 WHO classification and type of treatment. A surgical resection was more often performed in incidentally detected tumours located in the pancreas body tail. Two-year progression-free survival was 63.8%: 82% after a radical resection, 44% after a palliative resection and 41% without a resection. A radical resection and Ki67 proliferative index >5% and >10% were the only significant prognostic determinants in multivariate analysis. Conclusions A radical resection is the cornerstone treatment of malignant pNENs and represents, together with Ki67 assessment, the most powerful prognostic factor for 2-year outcomes.
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