Treatment of pediatric renal stones in a western country: A changing pattern

Annamaria Salerno, Simona Gerocarni Nappo, Ennio Matarazzo, Mauro De Dominicis, Paolo Caione

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Over the last 10 years the miniaturization of endoscopic instruments made minimally invasive procedures for kidney stones feasible even in children. The evolution in management of kidney stones in a tertiary care center in Europe is reported. Methods: Patients treated in our hospital for kidney stones from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed and group A (2002 to 2006) was compared with group B (2007 to 2011). The therapeutic options offered were Extracorporeal Shock Waves Lithotripsy (ESWL), Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS), Percutaneous Lithotripsy (PCNL) and open surgery. Outcome measures were: first treatment chosen, stone free rate after a single procedure, and retreatment. Results were compared by chi-square test, with p <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: 333 patients, mean age 9.7 years, were treated, 161 in group A and 172 in group B. ESWL was the first option in both groups, but decreased by 34% in group B vs A. In contrast, RIRS and PCNL increased by 17% and 16%, respectively, in group B vs group A. Open surgery was never required in primary lithiasis cases without associated malformations. Conclusion: The advent of PCNL and RIRS has significantly changed the pattern of renal stone treatment in the pediatric age group. A progressive increase of endourologic minimally invasive procedures was recorded. Open surgery should be a very rare option.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)835-839
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013


  • Child
  • ESWL
  • Laser
  • Nephrolithiasis
  • PCNL
  • RIRS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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