Venous thrombosis rarely occurs at unusual sites such as cerebral, splanchnic, upper-extremity, renal, ovarian, or retinal veins. Clinical features, symptoms, and risk factors of rare thrombotic manifestations are heterogeneous and in large part differ from those typical of the commonest manifestations of venous thrombosis at the lower extremities. The therapeutic approach also varies widely according to the affected site, whether cerebral, abdominal, or extraabdominal. To date, anticoagulant therapy for thrombosis at unusual sites is generally accepted, but the optimal therapeutic approach remains challenging. This review is focused on the treatment of unusual thrombotic manifestations as reported in the most recent guidelines and according to the updated scientific literature.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology