Background: The treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients remains controversial. Purpose: The Italian Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis (SISET) commissioned a project to develop clinical practice guidelines for the therapy of VTE in patients with malignancies. Methods: Key questions about the treatment of VTE in patients with malignancies were formulated by a multidisciplinary working group consisting of experts in clinical medicine and research. After a systematic review and discussion of the literature, recommendations were formulated and graded according to the supporting evidence. For those questions for which the literature search did not yield any definitive answer (absence of evidence evidence of low quality, and contradictory evidence), a formal consensus method was used to issue clinical recommendations. Results: The results of the available literature on VTE treatment in cancer patients were reviewed and clinical recommendations were drafted. Conclusion: We describe the results of a systematic literature review and an explicit approach to consensus techniques which resulted in recommendations for the key therapeutic issues in cancer patients with VTE.
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