BACKGROUND: This study evaluates, in a real-world setting, to what extent the recommended therapies by international guidelines, are prescribed after a first hospitalization for heart failure (HF), and to analyse adherence and persistence, and the effect of treatment adherence on mortality and re-hospitalization.
METHODS: From the Lombardy healthcare administrative database, we analysed patients discharged after their incident HF, from 2000 to 2012. Adherence was defined as the proportion of days covered (PDC) ≥80% adjusted for hospitalizations and persistence as the absence of discontinuation of therapy for >30 days. A logit model was used to determine the effect of patients' adherence on mortality and readmissions.
RESULTS: Of 100422 HF patients (52% males, age 75 ± 12 years), 86846 (87%) had a prescription for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACE/ARBs), 64135 (64%) for beta-blockers (BB), and 36893 (37%) for mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), as mono-, bi- or tri-therapy. In patients on monotherapy, PDC was 78 ± 22% for ACE/ARBs, 69 ± 29% for BB and 54 ± 29% for MRAs; in those on bi-therapy, PDC was 63 ± 31% for ACEI/ARBs+BB, 41 ± 29% for ACEI/ARBs+MRAs, and 40 ± 26% for MRAs+BB; for patients on tri-therapy, PDC was 42 ± 28%. Medication persistence was present in 47% of patients treated with ACEI/ARBs, in 35% of patients treated with BB and in 14% of patients treated with MRAs. Re-hospitalizations and in mortality were significantly reduced in adherent patients (p < 0.000).
CONCLUSIONS: Polypharmacy is associated with an increased rate of non-adherence and non-persistence in incident HF. Non-adherence is associated with an increased risk of mortality and re-hospitalizations.
- Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use
- Aged, 80 and over
- Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use
- Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use
- Heart Failure/diagnosis
- Medication Adherence
- Middle Aged
- Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use
- Retrospective Studies