Trichinella spiralis prevalence among wildlife of a boreal region rapidly reduced in the absence of spillover from the domestic cycle

Oksanen Antti, Interisano Maria, Isomursu Marja, Heikkinen Petra, Tonanzi Daniele, Oivanen Leena, Pozio Edoardo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Carnivore and omnivore animals are the main reservoir hosts of nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Out of the twelve taxa identified so far in the world, four, namely Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis, are circulating in Europe. All these four species were detected in Finnish wild animals and T. spiralis also in domestic pigs and synanthropic rats of Finland up to 2004, when the last T. spiralis infection was documented in a domestic pig. In the periods 1993–1997 and 1999–2005, T. spiralis was detected in 13.6% (6/44) and in 14.5% (46/317) of infected wild animals, respectively. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of Trichinella spp., especially T. spiralis in wild carnivores of Finland, 7–9 years after the eradication of Trichinella infection from Finnish domestic pigs, and to evaluate the impact of the disappearance of domestic cycle of T. spiralis on the sylvatic Trichinella cycle(s). Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 34.7% (1081/3112) wild animals and 835 (77.2%) Trichinella spp. isolates were identified at the species level. Trichinella spiralis was detected in 9 animals (1.0% of identified infections) as single, double or triple infections; whereas, T. spiralis had been detected in 13.6% and in 14.5% of infected wild animals in the course of the two previous investigations. The reduction of T. spiralis prevalence from 1993–1997 to 2011–2013 is statistically significant (p < 0.001) both per total tested animals and per host species. The results of this study support the hypothesis of spillover from domestic pigs as a source of T. spiralis in wildlife. The eradication of T. spiralis from the domestic cycle in Finland in 2004 has probably established a virtuous cycle reducing the prevalence of this pathogen among wild carnivores. We can expect that within some years and in absence of T. spiralis reintroduction in the domestic habitat, it might even disappear from the Finnish wildlife.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalVeterinary Parasitology
Volume262
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 15 2018
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Trichinella spiralis
Trichinella
wildlife
Sus scrofa
Wild Animals
wild animals
Finland
carnivores
swine
Infection
infection
Trichinella pseudospiralis
animals
disease reservoirs
omnivores
Ecosystem
Larva

Keywords

  • Carnivores
  • Domestic cycle
  • Finland
  • Prevalence
  • Trichinella spiralis
  • Wild cycle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Trichinella spiralis prevalence among wildlife of a boreal region rapidly reduced in the absence of spillover from the domestic cycle. / Antti, Oksanen; Maria, Interisano; Marja, Isomursu; Petra, Heikkinen; Daniele, Tonanzi; Leena, Oivanen; Edoardo, Pozio.

In: Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 262, 15.10.2018, p. 1-5.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Antti, Oksanen ; Maria, Interisano ; Marja, Isomursu ; Petra, Heikkinen ; Daniele, Tonanzi ; Leena, Oivanen ; Edoardo, Pozio. / Trichinella spiralis prevalence among wildlife of a boreal region rapidly reduced in the absence of spillover from the domestic cycle. In: Veterinary Parasitology. 2018 ; Vol. 262. pp. 1-5.
@article{5ac71f08f11c4c2ea6de20936c95117f,
title = "Trichinella spiralis prevalence among wildlife of a boreal region rapidly reduced in the absence of spillover from the domestic cycle",
abstract = "Carnivore and omnivore animals are the main reservoir hosts of nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Out of the twelve taxa identified so far in the world, four, namely Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis, are circulating in Europe. All these four species were detected in Finnish wild animals and T. spiralis also in domestic pigs and synanthropic rats of Finland up to 2004, when the last T. spiralis infection was documented in a domestic pig. In the periods 1993–1997 and 1999–2005, T. spiralis was detected in 13.6{\%} (6/44) and in 14.5{\%} (46/317) of infected wild animals, respectively. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of Trichinella spp., especially T. spiralis in wild carnivores of Finland, 7–9 years after the eradication of Trichinella infection from Finnish domestic pigs, and to evaluate the impact of the disappearance of domestic cycle of T. spiralis on the sylvatic Trichinella cycle(s). Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 34.7{\%} (1081/3112) wild animals and 835 (77.2{\%}) Trichinella spp. isolates were identified at the species level. Trichinella spiralis was detected in 9 animals (1.0{\%} of identified infections) as single, double or triple infections; whereas, T. spiralis had been detected in 13.6{\%} and in 14.5{\%} of infected wild animals in the course of the two previous investigations. The reduction of T. spiralis prevalence from 1993–1997 to 2011–2013 is statistically significant (p < 0.001) both per total tested animals and per host species. The results of this study support the hypothesis of spillover from domestic pigs as a source of T. spiralis in wildlife. The eradication of T. spiralis from the domestic cycle in Finland in 2004 has probably established a virtuous cycle reducing the prevalence of this pathogen among wild carnivores. We can expect that within some years and in absence of T. spiralis reintroduction in the domestic habitat, it might even disappear from the Finnish wildlife.",
keywords = "Carnivores, Domestic cycle, Finland, Prevalence, Trichinella spiralis, Wild cycle",
author = "Oksanen Antti and Interisano Maria and Isomursu Marja and Heikkinen Petra and Tonanzi Daniele and Oivanen Leena and Pozio Edoardo",
year = "2018",
month = "10",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.09.002",
language = "English",
volume = "262",
pages = "1--5",
journal = "Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports",
issn = "0304-4017",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Trichinella spiralis prevalence among wildlife of a boreal region rapidly reduced in the absence of spillover from the domestic cycle

AU - Antti, Oksanen

AU - Maria, Interisano

AU - Marja, Isomursu

AU - Petra, Heikkinen

AU - Daniele, Tonanzi

AU - Leena, Oivanen

AU - Edoardo, Pozio

PY - 2018/10/15

Y1 - 2018/10/15

N2 - Carnivore and omnivore animals are the main reservoir hosts of nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Out of the twelve taxa identified so far in the world, four, namely Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis, are circulating in Europe. All these four species were detected in Finnish wild animals and T. spiralis also in domestic pigs and synanthropic rats of Finland up to 2004, when the last T. spiralis infection was documented in a domestic pig. In the periods 1993–1997 and 1999–2005, T. spiralis was detected in 13.6% (6/44) and in 14.5% (46/317) of infected wild animals, respectively. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of Trichinella spp., especially T. spiralis in wild carnivores of Finland, 7–9 years after the eradication of Trichinella infection from Finnish domestic pigs, and to evaluate the impact of the disappearance of domestic cycle of T. spiralis on the sylvatic Trichinella cycle(s). Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 34.7% (1081/3112) wild animals and 835 (77.2%) Trichinella spp. isolates were identified at the species level. Trichinella spiralis was detected in 9 animals (1.0% of identified infections) as single, double or triple infections; whereas, T. spiralis had been detected in 13.6% and in 14.5% of infected wild animals in the course of the two previous investigations. The reduction of T. spiralis prevalence from 1993–1997 to 2011–2013 is statistically significant (p < 0.001) both per total tested animals and per host species. The results of this study support the hypothesis of spillover from domestic pigs as a source of T. spiralis in wildlife. The eradication of T. spiralis from the domestic cycle in Finland in 2004 has probably established a virtuous cycle reducing the prevalence of this pathogen among wild carnivores. We can expect that within some years and in absence of T. spiralis reintroduction in the domestic habitat, it might even disappear from the Finnish wildlife.

AB - Carnivore and omnivore animals are the main reservoir hosts of nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Out of the twelve taxa identified so far in the world, four, namely Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella pseudospiralis, are circulating in Europe. All these four species were detected in Finnish wild animals and T. spiralis also in domestic pigs and synanthropic rats of Finland up to 2004, when the last T. spiralis infection was documented in a domestic pig. In the periods 1993–1997 and 1999–2005, T. spiralis was detected in 13.6% (6/44) and in 14.5% (46/317) of infected wild animals, respectively. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of Trichinella spp., especially T. spiralis in wild carnivores of Finland, 7–9 years after the eradication of Trichinella infection from Finnish domestic pigs, and to evaluate the impact of the disappearance of domestic cycle of T. spiralis on the sylvatic Trichinella cycle(s). Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 34.7% (1081/3112) wild animals and 835 (77.2%) Trichinella spp. isolates were identified at the species level. Trichinella spiralis was detected in 9 animals (1.0% of identified infections) as single, double or triple infections; whereas, T. spiralis had been detected in 13.6% and in 14.5% of infected wild animals in the course of the two previous investigations. The reduction of T. spiralis prevalence from 1993–1997 to 2011–2013 is statistically significant (p < 0.001) both per total tested animals and per host species. The results of this study support the hypothesis of spillover from domestic pigs as a source of T. spiralis in wildlife. The eradication of T. spiralis from the domestic cycle in Finland in 2004 has probably established a virtuous cycle reducing the prevalence of this pathogen among wild carnivores. We can expect that within some years and in absence of T. spiralis reintroduction in the domestic habitat, it might even disappear from the Finnish wildlife.

KW - Carnivores

KW - Domestic cycle

KW - Finland

KW - Prevalence

KW - Trichinella spiralis

KW - Wild cycle

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053193337&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053193337&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.09.002

DO - 10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.09.002

M3 - Article

C2 - 30389004

AN - SCOPUS:85053193337

VL - 262

SP - 1

EP - 5

JO - Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports

JF - Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports

SN - 0304-4017

ER -