Tridimensional kinematic analysis on a kayaking simulator: Key factors to successful performance

Eloisa Limonta, Roberto Squadrone, Renato Rodano, Alberto Marzegan, Arsenio Veicsteinas, Giampiero Merati, Massimiliano Sacchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The aim of this study was to identify the kinematic variables contributing to successful performance in kayaking using a kayak simulator and three-dimensional kinematic analysis. In addition, the presence of side-to-side asymmetries in selected linear and angular variables was investigated. Methods: Five élite, four intermediate and six novice paddlers participated in this study. The subjects performed on a paddling simulator near their race pace. Three-dimensional coordinates of 17 anatomical landmarks were acquired at 100 Hz on an automatic motion analyser equipped with seven video cameras. Results: Élite paddlers showed a significantly higher (absolute and relative to arm length) paddling amplitude than the other two groups, with no significant difference in anthropometric dimensions. In addition, they demonstrated a significantly lower level of asymmetry in some joint angles with respect to novice and intermediate paddlers. In contrast, less-experienced paddlers (novice and intermediate) showed more accentuated saddle and pelvis movements in the frontal plane. Conclusion: Similar to previously findings in other symmetrical cyclic sporting activities (cross-country skiing, running), élite paddlers showed higher movement amplitude than intermediate and novice kayakers. Muscle strength and technical skills developed during training may explain the differences found.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-34
Number of pages8
JournalSport Sciences for Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2010


  • Asymmetry
  • Kinematic analysis
  • Motion analysis system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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