Andreas F. Mavrogenis, Pietro Ruggieri

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Tumors of the axis (C2 vertebra) are rare. The location and unique structure of the upper cervical spine and proximity to vital structures make diagnosis and treatment difficult. Appropriate clinical and radiographic evaluation, biopsy, oncologic and surgical staging, and adequate operative techniques and adjuvant treatments should be considered. Pain is usually the initial symptom; incidental diagnosis on plain radiographs is not uncommon. Spasm, kyphotic or scoliotic deformities, or torticollis, neck stiffness and dysphagia, neurological deficits, or spine instability may be associated symptoms. Surgery is the main treatment. However, in the upper cervical spine, intralesional surgery can only be made. Adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy are indicated for certain tumor histologies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Axis Vertebra
PublisherSpringer-Verlag Italia s.r.l.
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9788847052321, 8847052319, 9788847052314
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2013


  • Axis
  • Bone tumors
  • Cervical spine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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