Twenty years of paediatric cardiac pacing: 515 pacemakers and 480 leads implanted in 292 patients

Massimo Stefano Silvetti, Fabrizio Drago, Giorgia Grutter, Antonella De Santis, Vincenzo Di Ciommo, Lucilla Ravà

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term outcome of pacemakers (PMs) in paediatric patients. Methods and results: Patients' data were retrospectively reviewed. We recorded the techniques and systems used, any complication, and outcome. Endocardial leads were inserted by transcutaneous puncture of subclavian vein and fixed with a non-absorbable ligature, and epicardial leads by standard surgical technique. Lead survival was calculated and plotted with the product limit method of Kaplan-Meier. Between 1982 and 2002, 292 patients, aged 8±7 years (range 1 day-18 years), underwent PM implantation: the first PM had endocardial leads in 165 patients and epicardial in 127 patients. Structural heart disease (HD) was present in 239 patients. Follow-up was 5±4 (range 0.1-18) years. There were no pacing-related deaths. In total, 211 endocardial implantation procedures with 90 atrial and 165 ventricular leads and 145 epicardial procedures with 103 atrial and 123 ventricular leads were performed. Early (

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)530-536
Number of pages7
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006


  • Cardiac pacing
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Endocardial pacing
  • Epicardial pacing
  • Pacing complications
  • Paediatric age

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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