Two-step islet autoantibody screening for risk assessment of type 1 diabetes in relatives

Matteo R. Pastore, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Riccardo Bonfanti, Nicoletta Dozio, Alessandro Sergi, Annalisa Balini, Cristina Belloni, Franco Meschi, Ezio Bonifacio, Emanuele Bosi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE - To examine the performance of islet cell antibodies (ICAs) and antibodies to glutamate decarboxylase (GADA), IA-2 (IA-2 antibody [IA- 2A]), and insulin (insulin autoantibody [IAA]), alone and in combination, in assessing type 1 diabetes risk within type 1 diabetic families to identify a practical and effective screening strategy for predicting type 1 diabetes in relatives. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - ICA, GADA, IA-2A, and IAA were determined in 806 first-degree relatives participating in a prospective type 1 diabetes family study (median follow-up 6.17 years, range 0.6-8.3). The conferred risk of developing type I diabetes within 6 years was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier for each antibody marker, used alone or in combination. RESULTS - ICAs were detected in 3%, GADA in 5.1%, IA-2A in 2.5%, and IAA in 3.7% of relatives; ≤ 1 antibody markers were detected in 10.7% of relatives and ≤2 were detected in 1.9% of relatives. The risk of type 1 diabetes at 6 years was 1.5% in relatives with only 1 marker and 24.8% in relatives with ≤2 markers. As a practical and effective strategy for type 1 diabetes risk assessment in relatives, this study indicates a first-step screening based on GADA and IA2A measurement-which identified 6.5% of relatives, including all who developed the disease, with a 6-year type 1 diabetes risk of 9.0%- followed by a second step based on ICA and IAA measurement in relatives with either GADA or IA-2A, which identified a total of 1.9% of all relatives as having ≤2 markers, and a 6-year risk of 24.8%, including 6 of 7 who developed type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - A two-step antibody screening, based first on GADA and IA-2A and then on ICA and IAA measurements in identified individuals, is likely to be a practical, sensitive, and effective strategy for predicting type 1 diabetes in first-degree relatives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1445-1450
Number of pages6
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Internal Medicine


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