Type 1 and type 2 cytokines in HIV infection - A possible role in apoptosis and disease progression

Mario Clerici, Maria Luisa Fusi, Stefania Ruzzante, Stefania Piconi, Mara Biasin, Donatella Arienti, Daria Trabattoni, Maria Luisa Villa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The progression of HIV-infected subjects to AIDS was recently postulated to be controlled by the balance between type 1 cytokines (mainly enhancing cell-mediated immunity) and type 2 cytokines (mainly augmenting antibody production). Thus, progression of HIV infection was suggested to be accompanied by a decline of in vitro production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-12 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (type 1 cytokines) and an increase in the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10 (type 2 cytokines) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-seropositive patients. According to this hypothesis, clinical markers of progression would be considered the loss of the ability to elicit a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to ubiquitous antigens (secondary to defective IL-2 production), hyper-IgE (secondary to increased IL-4 production) and hypereosynophilia (secondary to increased IL-5 production). The type 1 to type 2 shift was suggested to be predictive for the following events: (i) reduction in CD4 counts; (ii) time to AIDS diagnosis; (iii) time to death. Support for this hypothesis stems from the recent observation that a strong type 1/weak type 2 cytokine production profile was observed in HIV-seropositive patients with delayed or absent disease progression, whereas progression of HIV infection was characterized by a weak type 1/strong type 2 cytokine production profile. PBMC of HIV-seropositive individuals are susceptible to antigen-induced cell death (AICD) after antigen recognition via T-cell receptor (TcR). While TcR-induced AICD is seen in CD4+ and CD8+ cells programmed cell death induced by recall antigens is preferentially observed in CD4+ cells, a situation more closely resembling the CD4 depletion of HIV infection. Because type 1 cytokines reduce, whereas type 2 cytokines augment T-lymphocyte AICD, an increase in the concentration of type 2 cytokines could result in the decline in CD4+ cells seen in HIV infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-188
Number of pages4
JournalAnnals of Medicine
Volume29
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1997

Fingerprint

HIV Infections
Disease Progression
Apoptosis
Cytokines
Cell Death
HIV
Interleukin-2
Antigens
Interleukin-5
T-Cell Antigen Receptor
Interleukin-4
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Viral Tumor Antigens
Delayed Hypersensitivity
Interleukin-12
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Cellular Immunity
Interleukin-10
Immunoglobulin E
Interferon-gamma

Keywords

  • AIDS
  • Apoptosis
  • Cytokines
  • Disease progression
  • HIV
  • Immunology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Clerici, M., Fusi, M. L., Ruzzante, S., Piconi, S., Biasin, M., Arienti, D., ... Villa, M. L. (1997). Type 1 and type 2 cytokines in HIV infection - A possible role in apoptosis and disease progression. Annals of Medicine, 29(3), 185-188.

Type 1 and type 2 cytokines in HIV infection - A possible role in apoptosis and disease progression. / Clerici, Mario; Fusi, Maria Luisa; Ruzzante, Stefania; Piconi, Stefania; Biasin, Mara; Arienti, Donatella; Trabattoni, Daria; Villa, Maria Luisa.

In: Annals of Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 3, 1997, p. 185-188.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Clerici, M, Fusi, ML, Ruzzante, S, Piconi, S, Biasin, M, Arienti, D, Trabattoni, D & Villa, ML 1997, 'Type 1 and type 2 cytokines in HIV infection - A possible role in apoptosis and disease progression', Annals of Medicine, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 185-188.
Clerici, Mario ; Fusi, Maria Luisa ; Ruzzante, Stefania ; Piconi, Stefania ; Biasin, Mara ; Arienti, Donatella ; Trabattoni, Daria ; Villa, Maria Luisa. / Type 1 and type 2 cytokines in HIV infection - A possible role in apoptosis and disease progression. In: Annals of Medicine. 1997 ; Vol. 29, No. 3. pp. 185-188.
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