Ultrasonographic and multimodal imaging of pediatric genital female diseases

Maria Grazia Caprio, Marco Di Serafino, Alessia De Feo, Elvira Guerriero, Teresa Perillo, Luigi Barbuto, Norberto Vezzali, Eugenio Rossi, Federica Ferro, Gianfranco Vallone, Cinzia Orazi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Ultrasonography is the first-line imaging modality in the evaluation of the female pelvis in childhood and adolescence, because it is easy to perform, non-invasive and it does not require sedation. The transabdominal approach is preferred in children and adolescents, after filling the bladder to move away the bowel loops from the pelvis. The probe frequency must be adapted to age, thickness of tissues and depth of the structures under examination. High-frequency (4-12 MHz) linear or convex probes are used in newborns; high-frequency linear probes (4-12 MHz) in toddler, convex 5-7.5 MHz probes in girls and convex 3.5-5 MHz probes in teenagers. In this article, the main pathological conditions of the genital female tract in pediatric age are examined, such as congenital anomalies, disorders of sex development, ovarian cysts, ovarian tumors, adnexal torsion, primary amenorrhea, precocious puberty and pelvic inflammatory disease.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Ultrasound
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Feb 19 2019
Externally publishedYes

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    Caprio, M. G., Di Serafino, M., De Feo, A., Guerriero, E., Perillo, T., Barbuto, L., Vezzali, N., Rossi, E., Ferro, F., Vallone, G., & Orazi, C. (2019). Ultrasonographic and multimodal imaging of pediatric genital female diseases. Journal of Ultrasound. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40477-019-00358-5