Ultrasound and cone beam CT fusion for liver ablation: technical note

Lorenzo Monfardini, Franco Orsi, Rosalba Caserta, Claudio Sallemi, Paolo Della Vigna, Guido Bonomo, Gianluca Varano, Luigi Solbiati, Giovanni Mauri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To assess the feasibility of fusion imaging between intraprocedural ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced cone-beam CT (CBCT) for small (< 2 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Six patients (five males, one female, age range 58–80, mean 69 years), with small (mean diameter 16.8 mm) HCC poorly visible at US underwent percutaneous microwave ablation under US/CBCT fusion guidance. During general anesthesia with apnea control, a contrast- enhanced CBCT was acquired with an active tracker. Subsequently, real time US images were fused with CBCT images, and treatment performed under fusion imaging guidance. Feasibility of fusion imaging and percutaneous ablation were assessed, correct targeting (distance from center of tumor and center of ablation area <5 mm) and one-month primary technical efficacy were evaluated. Major and minor complications as well as overall procedural time were recorded. Results: US/CBCT fusion was feasible in all cases, allowing for completion of the treatment as previously planned (technical success 100%). Correct targeting was achieved in 4/6 cases (66%), while in two cases, center of tumor and center of ablated area were respectively 7 and 8 mm distant. At 1 month CT scan, all tumors were completely ablated (primary technical efficacy 100%). No major or minor complications occurred. Mean overall procedure time was 127 min. Conclusions: US/CBCT fusion is a feasible technique for liver ablation, and might represent a useful tool to increase the correct targeting of poorly US-visible HCC nodules in the angio suite.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Hyperthermia
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018


  • cone beam CT
  • controlled apnea
  • Fusion imaging
  • microwave ablation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cancer Research


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