Introduction: The objective of the present study is to compare the sonographic measurement of subcutaneous adipose thickness and visceral adipose thickness during 1st trimester screening for aneuploidies between non-diabetic pregnant women and patients who develop 1st trimester or 2nd trimester gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Material and methods: Adipose thickness was measured by transabdominal ultrasound imaging in pregnant women attending our clinic for screening for fetal aneuploidies between 11 and 13 weeks of gestation. During the 1st trimester all patients were evaluated for fasting glycemia in accordance with the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recommendations. Patients with confirmed fasting glycemia (FPG) ≥92 mg/dL were diagnosed as 1st trimester GDM. Patients with FPG <92 mg/dL underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 28 weeks. Results: The study population included 238 non-diabetic women, 29 women with 1st trimester GDM and 28 women with 2nd trimester GDM. Mean subcutaneous adipose thickness and visceral adipose thickness values in non-diabetic women were 9.8 mm (standard deviation [SD = 4.9) and 7.2 mm (SD = 3.5), respectively. Values in women with 1st trimester GDM were 12.8 mm (SD = 6.5) and 9.9 mm (SD = 4.4). In the 2nd trimester GDM group, the mean subcutaneous adipose thickness was 11.1 mm (SD = 4.6) and the mean visceral adipose thickness 10.5 mm (SD = 5.3). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that visceral adipose thickness, but not subcutaneous adipose thickness, was significantly and independently associated with both 1st trimester GDM (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.29) and 2nd trimester GDM (odds ratio [OR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.34). Conclusions: Sonographic thickness of maternal visceral adipose tissue was greater in women with GDM than in non-diabetic patients, independently of other known risk factors associated with GDM in the 1st and in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Thus, this measurement may be considered of clinical use in 1st trimester screening.
- 1st trimester screening
- adipose tissue
- gestational diabetes
- International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups
- subcutaneous adipose thickness
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology