Ultrasound findings in cases of extrapulmonary TB in patients with HIV infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Samuel Goblirsch, Sami Bahlas, Maimoona Ahmed, Enrico Brunetti, Claudia Wallrauch, Tom Heller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To report ultrasound (US), laboratory and chest radiograph (CXR) findings of patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and discuss the diagnostic relevance of US in EPTB in high-risk individuals. Methods: In this retrospective study, we described a cohort of 39 patients with a primarily immigrant background diagnosed with HIV and EPTB in Saudi Arabia and evaluated the role of US in their clinical management. All inpatient files of those diagnosed with EPTB who were HIV positive and had at least one US exam and one CXR exam performed were identified; results and outcomes were extracted. Results: Thirty-nine patients were diagnosed with HIV-associated EPTB between January 2008 and March 2012 and fulfilled the search criteria. Disseminated TB was diagnosed in 32 patients, pleural TB in 15, TB meningitis in 9 and TB pericarditis in 5. Enlarged abdominal lymph nodes were the single most frequent US finding seen in 61%, followed by pleural effusions (38%), liver (36%) and spleen (31%) lesions. CXR were normal in 38% of the patients. Conclusions: As EPTB infections in HIV positive patients can be treated effectively if diagnosed early, we suggest that US should be integrated in diagnostic algorithms for EPTB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-17
Number of pages4
JournalAsian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2014


  • Diagnosis
  • Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis
  • HIV
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)


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