Under-recognized post-stroke acute kidney injury: risk factors and relevance for stroke outcome of a frequent comorbidity

Fabrizio Grosjean, Michela Tonani, Rosario Maccarrone, Carlo Cerra, Federica Spaltini, Annalisa De Silvestri, Francesco Falaschi, Simona Migliazza, Carmine Tinelli, Teresa Rampino, Antonio Di Sabatino, Alessandra Martignoni

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Abstract

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is emerging as a predictor of poor stroke outcome, however, it is often not recognized. The aim of our study was to evaluate post-stroke AKI burden, AKI risk factors and their influence in post-stroke outcome. Methods: From 2013 to 2016, 440 individuals with stroke diagnosis admitted in Stroke Unit, Foundation IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo (Pavia, Italy), were retrospectively enrolled. AKI cases identified by KDIGO criteria through the electronic database and hospital chart review were compared with the ones reported in discharge letters or in administrative hospital data base. Mortality data were provided by Agenzia Tutela della Salute of Pavia. Results: We included 430 patients in the analysis. Median follow-up was 19.2 months. We identified 79 AKI cases (18% of the enrolled patients, 92% classified as AKI stage 1), a fivefold higher number of cases than the ones reported at discharge. 37 patients had AKI at the admission in the hospital, while 42 developed AKI during the hospitalization. Cardioembolic (p = 0.01) and hemorrhagic (p = 0.01) stroke types were associated with higher AKI risk. Admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, p < 0.05) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (p < 0.01) were independently associated with overall AKI, while admission NIHSS (p < 0.05) and eGFR (p < 0.005) were independently associated with AKI developed during the hospitalization. AKI was associated to longer in-hospital stay (p = 0.01), worse Rankin Neurologic Disability Score at discharge (p < 0.0001) and discharge disposition other than home (p = 0.03). AKI was also independently associated to higher in-hospital mortality (OR 3.9 95% CI 1.2–12.9 p = 0.023) but not with long-term survival. Conclusions: Post-stroke AKI diagnosis needs to be improved by strictly monitoring individuals with cardioembolic or hemorrhagic stroke, reduced kidney function, higher Charlson Comorbidity Index and worse NIHSS at presentation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Urology and Nephrology
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019

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Keywords

  • Acute renal failure
  • Cerebrovascular accident
  • Disability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Urology

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