Underwater Sonography of Leg Veins

The Underwater Compression Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Hydrostatic compression (HC) occurring during body immersion is considered beneficial for venous return from the lower limbs. No study has evaluated the effects of HC on the veins of the lower limbs using duplex ultrasound (DU). The purpose of this study was to use DU to evaluate the morphology and flow of the leg veins during immersion. Design: The femoral and great saphenous veins were evaluated before and during immersion in a specifically built pool, in normal and varicose limbs. Results: HC reduces vein size in both normal and varicose limbs. During immersion spontaneous flow increases whereas when present, blood reflux decreases. Discussion: This pilot, proof of concept study has demonstrated the feasibility of DU investigation of leg veins during immersion. Larger series of underwater DU evaluations of normal and varicose legs are necessary to quantify and better explain the effects of HC on the veins of the lower limb.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-15
Number of pages3
JournalEJVES Short Reports
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Balneotherapy
  • Compression
  • Duplex ultrasound
  • Underwater duplex
  • Varicose veins
  • Venous haemodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Underwater Sonography of Leg Veins'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this