The present report concerns a vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected 7-year-old child, in whom a neurodegenerative disease occurred after an acute neurologic disorder that was in all likelihood symptomatic of HIV-1 encephalitis. At the steady state the neurologic disease fulfilled the accepted criteria of HIV-related progressive encephalopathy of childhood and was characterized by involvement of multiple neural systems and subcortical dementia. The neurologic disease displayed, however, atypical presentation and course, and its acute focal onset led the authors to postulate an acute and direct involvement of the brain in HIV-1 infection. The correlation between the cliniconeuroradiologic data and levels of HIV- RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid and the response to different antiretroviral treatments are also discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental Neuroscience