The term genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) emerged following a consensus conference held in May 2013. GSM is a more descriptive term than vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and does not imply pathology. However there are concerns that GSM is all encompassing and includes not only symptoms resulting from estrogen deficiency, but also those arising from the effects of ageing and other processes on the bladder and pelvic floor. Focusing on symptoms related to estrogen deficiency, the update provides a practical guide for health and allied health professionals on the impact of GSM on women and their partners, assessment, management and areas for future research. As GSM is a chronic condition, long term therapy is required. Hormonal, nonhormonal, laser and alternative and complementary therapies are described.
- Genitourinary syndrome of menopause
- Menopausal hormone therapy
- Nonhormonal vaginal therapy
- Vulvovaginal atrophy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)