Update on neuroimaging phenotypes of mid-hindbrain malformations

Patrice Jissendi-Tchofo, Mariasavina Severino, Béatrice Nguema-Edzang, Cissé Toure, Gustavo Soto Ares, Anthony James Barkovich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Neuroimaging techniques including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional positron emission tomography (PET) are useful in categorizing various midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) malformations, both in allowing diagnosis and in helping to understand the developmental processes that were disturbed. Brain imaging phenotypes of numerous malformations are characteristic features that help in guiding the genetic testing in case of direct neuroimaging-genotype correlation or, at least, to differentiate among MHB malformations entities. The present review aims to provide the reader with an update of the use of neuroimaging applications in the fine analysis of MHB malformations, using a comprehensive, recently proposed developmental and genetic classification. Methods: We have performed an extensive systematic review of the literature, from the embryology main steps of MHB development through the malformations entities, with regard to their molecular and genetic basis, conventional MRI features, and other neuroimaging characteristics. Results: We discuss disorders in which imaging features are distinctive and how these features reflect the structural and functional impairment of the brain. Conclusion: Recognition of specific MRI phenotypes, including advanced imaging features, is useful to recognize the MHB malformation entities, to suggest genetic investigations, and, eventually, to monitor the disease outcome after supportive therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-138
Number of pages26
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Cerebellar dysplasia
  • Cerebellum embryology
  • Mid-hindbrain malformations
  • Pontine dysplasia
  • Posterior fossa malformations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Medicine(all)


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