Updated European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing

A. M. Vandamme, A. Sönnerborg, M. Ait-Khaled, J. Albert, B. Asjo, L. Bacheler, D. Banhegyi, C. Boucher, F. Brun-Vézinet, R. Camacho, P. Clevenbergh, N. Clumeck, N. Dedes, A. De Luca, H. W. Doerr, J. L. Faudon, G. Gatti, J. Gerstoft, W. W. Hall, A. HatzakisN. Hellmann, A. Horban, J. D. Lundgren, D. Kempf, M. Miller, V. Miller, T. W. Myers, C. Nielsen, M. Opravil, L. Palmisano, C. F. Perno, A. Phillips, D. Pillay, T. Pumarola, L. Ruiz, M. Salminen, J. Schapiro, B. Schmidt, J. C. Schmit, R. Schuurman, E. Shulse, V. Soriano, S. Staszewski, S. Vella, M. Youle, R. Ziermann, L. Perrin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In most European countries, HIV drug resistance testing has become a routine clinical tool. However, its practical implementation in a clinical context is demanding. The European HIV Drug Resistance Panel was established to make recommendations to clinicians and virologists on this topic and to propose quality control measures. The panel recommends resistance testing for the following indications: i) drug-naive patients with acute or recent infection; ii) therapy failure, including suboptimal treatment response, when treatment change is considered; iii) pregnant HIV-1-infected women and paediatric patients with detectable viral load when treatment initiation or change is considered; and iv) genotype source patient when post-exposure prophylaxis is considered. In addition, for drug-naive patients with chronic infection in whom treatment is to be started, the panel suggests that resistance testing should be strongly considered and recommends testing the earliest sample for drug resistance if suspicion of resistance is high or prevalence of resistance in this population exceeds 10%. The panel does not favour genotyping over phenotype, however it is anticipated that genotyping will be used more often because of its greater accessibility, lower cost and faster turnaround time. For the interpretation of resistance data, clinically validated systems should be used to the greatest extent possible. It is mandatory that laboratories performing HIV resistance tests take regular part in quality assurance programs. Similarly, it is necessary that HIV clinicians and virologists take part in continuous education and meet regularly to discuss problematic clinical cases. Indeed, resistance test results should be used in the context of all other clinically relevant information for predicting therapy response. The panel also encourages the timely collection of epidemiological information to estimate the impact of transmission of resistant HIV and the prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes in the different European countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)829-848
Number of pages20
JournalAntiviral Therapy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology


Dive into the research topics of 'Updated European recommendations for the clinical use of HIV drug resistance testing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this