Urinary metabolites of organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PYR) pesticides from seven years old children of a birth cohort study (n = 199; PHIME cohort of Trieste, Italy) have been measured. Six OP and two PYR metabolites have been investigated, 2-diethylamino-6-methylpyrimidin-4-ol (DEAMPY, pirimiphos metabolite) was the one found at higher concentrations, median 3.4 ng/mL specific gravity adjusted (SG adjusted), followed by 4-nitrophenol (PNP, median 1.4 ng/mL SG adjusted) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY, median 0.36 ng/mL SG adjusted), parathion and chlorpyriphos metabolites, respectively. TCPY concentrations were low in comparison to other distributions of OP metabolites in children from other studies. Accordingly, the PHIME cohort showed a distinct OP metabolite distribution with high concentrations of pirimiphos and parathion. Another specific characteristic of this cohort was the high concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-BPA, median 0.36 ng/mL SG adjusted), a general metabolite of PYR pesticides. Evaluation of anthropometric and socio-demographic characteristics of children and families only showed a positive association between family educational level and urinary concentrations of DEAMPY metabolite (p <0.05), which could reflect distinct dietary habits depending on the educational level. Estimated daily intakes were evaluated, all studied metabolites were found within safe levels.
- Organophosphate pesticides
- Human biomonitoring
- Estimated daily intakes
Bravo, N., Grimalt, J. O., Bocca, B., Pino, A., Bin, M., Brumatti, L. V., Rosolen, V., Barbone, F., Ronfani, L., Alimonti, A., & Calamandrei, G. (2019). Urinary metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in children from an Italian cohort (PHIME, Trieste). Environmental Research, 176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.05.039